deep learning

Deep Learning

What is deep learning?

Deep learning is a subset of machine learning which is basically a neural network with three or more layers. This neural network attempts to simulate the behavior of the human brain, although it is far from “learning” from large amounts of data. While single-layer neural networks can still make rough predictions, additional hidden layers can help optimize and improve accuracy.

Deep learning enables many artificial intelligence (AI) applications and services that can enhance automation to perform analytical and physical tasks without human intervention. Deep learning technologies support everyday products and services (such as digital assistants, voice-activated TV remote controls, and credit card fraud detection) and new technologies (such as self-driving cars).

In-depth training and machine learning

If deep learning is a subset of machine learning, what difference does it make? The difference between deep learning and classic machine learning lies in the type of data and the learning methods used.

Machine learning algorithms use structured and labeled data to make predictions, which means that certain features are determined from model input and arranged in tables. This doesn’t mean that you don’t use unstructured data; it just means that if you do, you will usually process it first to organize it in a structured format.

Deep learning eliminates data preprocessing typically associated with machine learning. This algorithm can capture and process unstructured data such as text and images, and extract functions automatically, eliminating dependence on human experts. For example, let’s say we have a number of photos of different pets and we want to categorize them by cats, dogs, hamsters, and so on. Deep learning algorithms can determine which functions (eg ears) are most important in distinguishing one animal from another. In machine learning, these role hierarchies are set manually by human experts.

Then, through the process of backward propagation and gradient descent, the deep learning algorithm adapts to its own accuracy and adjustment so that it can predict new animal images more accurately.

Machine learning and deep learning models can also carry out various types of learning, usually divided into supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning. Supervised training uses tagged records for classification or prediction; this requires human intervention to mark the input data correctly. In contrast to this, uncontrolled learning does not require identifying data records, but recognizing patterns in the data and grouping them according to different characteristics. Reinforced learning is the process by which the learning model performs more accurately in a feedback-based environment to maximize rewards.

This is how deep learning works

Deep learning neural networks, or artificial neural networks, attempt to mimic the human brain through a combination of data entry, weights, and deviations. These elements work together to accurately identify, classify, and describe objects in the data.

A deep neural network consists of several layers of interconnected nodes, with each layer built on top of the previous layer to improve and optimize predictions or classifications. The process of computing through this network is called forward propagation. The input and output layers of the inner neural network are called the visible layers. Deep learning models receive data for processing at the input layer and the final prediction or classification occurs at the output layer.

The simplest types of deep neural networks are described above in the simplest terms. However, deep learning algorithms are very complex and there are different types of neural networks to solve a particular problem or data set. For example.

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are primarily used in image classification and computer vision applications to identify features and patterns in images to perform tasks such as target detection or identification. In 2015, CNN first defeated a human in the Object Recognition Challenge.

What is NFT

NFT is short form of Non-fungible token. It is a unit of data stored in a digital ledger called a blockchain that can demonstrate that a digital asset is unique and therefore non-exchangeable. [1] NFT can be used to display projects such as photos, videos, audio, and other types of digital files. However, access to copies of the original files is not restricted by NFT buyers.

NFTs are digital assets that represent real-world objects such as art, music, gameplay, and videos. They are bought and sold online, often using cryptocurrencies, and are usually encrypted using the same basic software as many cryptocurrencies.

Although it has been around since 2014, it is now becoming more and more obvious along with the growing popularity of buying and selling digital art. As of November 2017, $174 million has been spent on NFT.

NFTs are usually of some kind, or at least very limited, and have a unique identification code. “Basically, NFT is creating a digital shortage,” said Ari Yu, chairman of the Cascadia Blockchain Commission for the Washington-based Technology Industry Association and chief executive of Yellow Umbrella Ventures.

This is in stark contrast to most digital creations, which almost always have unlimited stock. Assuming there is demand, a supply disruption should add value to the asset.

But at least in the early days, many NFTs were digital creations that already existed in some form elsewhere, such as the iconic NBA video game or a titled digital art version shared on Instagram.

For example, renowned digital artist Mike Winkleman, better known as “Beeple”, composed 5,000 paintings a day to create what was probably the most famous NFT of the time, “Every day: the first 5,000 days,” a work that was a record. on the collapse of Christie’s auction house for $69.3 million.

Anyone can view images online for free, or even entire image collages. So why are people willing to spend millions of dollars to buy something they can screenshot or download easily?

Because NFT allows the buyer to own the original item. It also includes a built-in certificate that can be used as proof of ownership. Collectors value this “digital commendation right” almost more than the object itself.

How is NFT different from cryptocurrency?

NFT means irreplaceable token. They are usually created using the same programming methods as cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin or Etherium, but that’s what they have in common.

Physical currencies and cryptocurrencies are “exchangeable”, meaning that they can be traded or exchanged for one another. They have the same value: a dollar is always worth a dollar; one bitcoin is always equal to another bitcoin. The cryptocurrency substitution makes it a reliable avenue for blockchain transactions.

The NFT is different. Each of them has a digital signature that makes it impossible for NFT to be interchangeable or identical (and therefore irreplaceable). For example, NBA top shot videos aren’t EVERY DAY just because they’re all NFT. (In this case, an NBA top shot video might not even be the same as another NBA top shot video.)

How does NFT work?

NFT is on the blockchain, a distributed public ledger that records transactions. You are probably familiar with blockchain as the main process that makes cryptocurrencies possible.

More specifically, NFTs are usually stored on the Ethereum blockchain, although other blocks support it as well.

NFTs are created or “formed” from digital objects that represent tangible and intangible objects, including:

• Art


• Videos and sports presented

• Collection

• Avatars and video game skins

• Sports shoes from famous brands

• music

In essence, NFT is like a physical collection, only digital. Therefore, instead of hanging the original oil painting on the wall, the buyer receives a digital file.

You also get exclusive properties. That’s right – NFT can only have one owner at a time. NFT’s unique data makes it easy to verify ownership and transfer tokens between owners. The owner or creator may also store specific information about it.

Machine Learning

Machine learning is a data analysis method that learns itself by analytical models. It is the main tool of artificial intelligence. The idea is that systems can learn from data, recognize patterns, and make decisions with minimal human intervention.

Machine learning evolution

Due to new computer technology, today’s machine learning is not like the machine learning of the past. It grew out of pattern recognition and the theory that computers could perform certain tasks without programming; Researchers interested in artificial intelligence want to see if computers can learn from data. You learn from previous calculations to get reliable and repeatable results and solutions.

Google self-advertising car? The essence of machine learning.

Do you recommend online products like Amazon and Netflix? Machine learning applications in everyday life.

Do you know what your customers are saying about you on Twitter? Machine learning is combined with the creation of language rules.

Fraud detection? Today one of the most obvious and important uses in the world.

Why is machine learning important?

Data mining and analysis are quite popular these days. Things like an ever-increasing amount and variety of data, cheaper and more powerful computational processing, and affordable data storage.

All this means that models can be generated quickly and automatically, which, even in large situations, can analyze larger and more complex data and provide faster and more accurate results. By creating accurate models, companies are more likely to identify opportunities for profit or avoid unknown risks.

Who uses it?

Most industries that process large amounts of data recognize the value of machine learning technology. By gathering information from this data, usually, in real-time, companies can work more efficiently or gain a competitive advantage.

Financial services



retail trade

oil and gas


Which machine learning methods are popular?

The two most widely used machine learning methods are supervised learning and unsupervised learning, but there are other machine learning methods as well.

There are 4 types of machine learning.

Supervised learning

Partially managed training

Intensive learning

Unsupervised learning

IBM has a long history of machine learning. One of its own members, Arthur Samuel, is credited with introducing the term “machine learning” for his research (PDF, 481 KB) on chess (link outside IBM). Robert Neely, who calls himself a master of billiards, played the game on an IBM 7094 computer in 1962 and lost the computer. Compared to what is possible today, this achievement may seem trivial, but it is considered an important step in the field of artificial intelligence.

Machine learning is an important part of the ever-evolving field of data science. Through the use of statistical methods, classification or forecasting training algorithms reveal important information in data mining projects. These insights then stimulate business and application decisions and ideally influence key growth indicators. As big data continues to evolve and grow, the market demand for data scientists will increase, so they must help identify the most relevant business questions and then use the data to solve those problems.

This is how machine learning works

The University of California, Berkeley (link is out of IBM) divides the machine learning algorithm system into three main parts.

Decision-making process: Generally, machine learning algorithms are used for prediction or ranking. Based on some input data, which may or may not be flagged, your algorithm generates an approximate data model.

Error function: The error function is used to estimate the model’s approximation. Once the sample is known, the error function can be compared to assess the accuracy of the model.

Model optimization process: As the model can better fit the data points in the training set, adjust the weights to reduce the difference between known and estimated examples. The algorithm repeats this evaluation and optimization process and automatically updates the weights until the accuracy threshold is reached.

ethereum and blockchain

Ethereum and Blockchain

What is Ethereum?
Ethereum is a blockchain-based decentralized software platform that includes smart-contract. Like other cryptocurrencies, Ethereum can be used to send and receive value around the world without the need for third-party involvement.
Exchange of value is the main application of the Ethereum blockchain today and is usually done through the blockchain’s natural marker, ether. Due to the long-term potential and ambitious vision of its developers, many developers are looking for cryptocurrencies, even if Ethereum gives users more control over their financial and online data. This ambitious idea, which has sometimes led to Ethereum being referred to as the “global computer,” has been rejected by some critics who say it may not work. However, if this experiment goes according to plan, it will result in very different apps from Facebook and Google, where users knowingly or unknowingly trust their data.

The goal of Ethereum enthusiasts is to use blockchain, a data distribution technology, to regain control of users so that thousands of people around the world can get their hands on a copy. Developers can use Ethereum to build lead-free apps, which means that service creators can’t tamper with user data.

Although Bitcoin was created to disrupt online banking and everyday transactions, the creators of Ethereum wanted to use the same technology to replace third parties on the internet and track complex financial instruments. These apps help people in many ways, including paving the way for sharing vacation photos with friends on social media. However, they are accused of abusing these controls by censoring data or inadvertently revealing sensitive user data in the hack, to name a few.

The platform was officially launched in 2015 and turned the idea of ​​Ethereum into a real and powerful network.

Proponents of decentralization say that this structure can create problems. This means less direct consumer control and also offers opportunities for censorship. Intermediaries can step in and prevent consumers from taking action, whether that’s buying shares, posting messages on social media, or blocking them outright.

Many people, including the founders of the Internet, believe that the Internet has always been decentralized and separatist movements have sprung up around the use of new tools to achieve this goal. Ethereum is one of the technologies joining this movement.

How is Ethereum different from Bitcoin?
Ethereum is inspired by Bitcoin. These are all cryptocurrencies. Ethereum uses the same technology as Bitcoin, a blockchain that uses a decentralized public ledger to decentralize the network so that it is not controlled by a single entity.

But while Bitcoin is primarily used as a store of value, the idea behind Ethereum is to decentralize other types of applications and services, from social media to more complex financial protocols.

What is the next step for Ethereum?
It should be noted that Ethereum has been met with strong suspicion. First, Ethereum is far from scalable, meaning it can no longer support multiple users, causing problems with the idea of ​​destroying the “global computer” of Google, Facebook, and other centralized platforms.

Ethereum 2.0 was introduced on December 1, 2020, to address some of these issues. Other scaling technologies such as Raiden, which has been in use for many years, can also solve scalability problems.

Like Bitcoin, Ethereum works through a public blockchain network; Bitcoin is used to track currency ownership, while the Ethereum blockchain focuses on the decentralized execution of program code for each application.

These applications may include security programs, voting systems, and payment methods. Like Bitcoin, Ethereum operates outside the license of central institutions such as banks and governments.

Is Ethereum a Cryptocurrency?

Ethereum itself is not essentially a cryptocurrency – the term Ethereum refers to a digital platform. The actual symbol (which is used for online payments) is called Ether. In other words, Ethereum is the “crypto-fuel” (or cryptocurrency) of the Ethereum network. In terms of transactions, the price you see is for Ether. However, you will usually see a cryptocurrency called Ethereum.

What is the difference between Ethereum and Bitcoin?
The Ethereum blockchain technology is similar to Bitcoin, but Bitcoin only uses one specific application of blockchain technology. After all, it is an electronic money system that supports online Bitcoin payments.

How can I trade Ethereum CFDs?
When you buy ether on an exchange, prices are usually quoted in traditional currencies (such as US dollars, euros, and British pounds). In other words, you sell some currency to buy Ether. If the price of ether goes up you can sell for a profit, if the price goes down and you decide to sell you will lose.

At CMC Markets you can trade Ether via a CFD account. This way, you can speculate on the actual price movements of cryptocurrencies without having to own them. They don’t get ownership of ether. On the other hand, the value of the position you open increases or decreases depending on the change in the price of ether against legal tenders.

CFDs are leveraged products. This means that you only need to deposit a certain percentage of the total transaction value to open a position. You don’t have to buy Ethereum outright to get all the funds at once, but you can use an initial deposit to get bigger funds. While leveraged trading can increase your returns, losses also increase because they are based on the total value of the position. Your losses can exceed your deposit.

EIP 1559 Update for Ethereum

Ethereum is the blockchain that manages Ethereum, Bitcoin’s second-largest cryptocurrency, and is undergoing a major update this week.

The London update scheduled for Thursday includes Ethereum Upgrade Proposal (EIP) 1559, which aims to change the way transaction fees, or “gas fees,” are calculated.

Currently, consumers have to bid how much they are willing to pay in order for miners to withdraw their Ether transactions, which can be quite expensive. According to EIP-1559, this process is controlled by an automated bidding system and the amount of the fixed fee varies depending on the level of network congestion.

Eric Connor, co-author of EIP-1559 said “It’s very useful for casual Ethereum users and makes it less intimidating to use the protocol.”

Another major change under EIP-1559 is that a portion of the transaction fees will be eliminated or withdrawn from circulation, reducing Ether delivery and potentially increasing its price.

Having said that, “EIP-1559 is one of the most important Ethereum updates since the network launched,” said Meltem Demirors, the chief strategic officer at CoinShares.

Here’s what investors need to know when the update is released.

What does EIP-1559 mean for investors?
EIP-1559 aims to strengthen the Ethereum ecosystem. Demirors said it had a big short-term impact on investors.

In the longer term, however, the proposal’s co-authors hope to deplete the ether by reducing supply. Connor said it was “very rewarding” for investors, especially “the United States has been talking about inflation lately”. This will give crypto investors the ability to hold deflationary assets.

However, Demirors said the EIP-1559 proposal alone would not topple Ethereum.

EIP-1559 will not lower gas prices or transaction prices on the network which can be very high.

However, the update remains important because it has the potential to improve the Ethereum user experience and potentially increase the price of Ethereum.

Demirors said other innovations are taking place around Ethereum. This includes plans to move from a Proof of Work (PoW) model to a Proof of Pledge (PoS) model later this year or early 2022.

In the PoS model, transactions can be accessed or checked based on the number of coins. In the PoW model, miners must compete to solve complex problems to verify transactions. Proponents of the PoS model say it will use less energy and increase blockchain efficiency.

Overall, I think the most important thing that EIP-1559 is showing investors is that Ethereum remains an actively developed project and refuses to stagnate and age,” Connor said.

The Ethereum network supports a number of projects in the cryptocurrency world, including irreplaceable tokens (NFTs), encrypted assets that are intangible digital elements such as images, videos, or game elements, as well as many decentralized, financial (DeFi) applications.

The update, known as Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP) 1559, will change the way transactions are handled and provide clearer pricing.

This will also reduce the delivery of ether and possibly increase its price significantly.

Several major exchanges have announced that they will be suspending deposits and withdrawals of Ether before and after adjustments.

How does artificial intelligence work?

Methods and concepts for artificial intelligence

Ten years after breaking the Enigma, and helping the Allies win World War II, mathematician Alan Turing changed history a second time with the simple question.

The question is “Can machines think?”

Turing’s dissertation Computers and Intelligence (1950) and the subsequent Turing test set out the basic goals and vision of artificial intelligence.

The broad goals of artificial intelligence have raised many questions and controversies. There are so many field definitions that are not widely accepted.

Can machines think? – Alan Turing, 1950

The main limitation of simply defining artificial intelligence as “building smart machines” is that it doesn’t really explain what artificial intelligence is. What makes a machine smart? Artificial intelligence is a science with many methods, but advances in machine learning.  Deep learning are causing a paradigm shift in almost all areas of the tech industry.

In their groundbreaking textbook Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Method, authors Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig have summarized their work on intelligent agents in machines to solve this problem.

Patrick Winston, professor of artificial intelligence and computer science at MIT, Ford, defines artificial intelligence as “algorithms that are activated by publicly created restrictions and that support the presentation of models that refer to cycles that link thinking, perception, and perception”. Action.

While these definitions may seem abstract to the average person, they help turn the field into a computing field and provide a model for the injection of machine learning and other subsets of artificial intelligence into machines and programs.

How is artificial intelligence used?

At the Japan Conference on Experience with Artificial Intelligence 2017, DataRobot CEO Jeremy Achin provided the following definition at the beginning of his speech on the current use of Artificial Intelligence:

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More than 20 examples of AI in everyday life

Artificial intelligence is usually divided into two categories, weak artificial intelligence and general artificial intelligence.

Narrow Artificial Intelligence: This type of artificial intelligence is sometimes referred to as “weak artificial intelligence” and works in a sandbox and is a simulation of human intelligence. Narrow artificial intelligence usually focuses on doing a task very well. Even though these machines look intelligent, they operate under more limitations.

General Artificial Intelligence (AGI): AGI, sometimes referred to as “strong artificial intelligence”, is the type of artificial intelligence we see in movies, such as robots in Westworld or Star Trek: The Next Generation. Information. AGI is a machine with general intelligence that, like humans, can use this intelligence to solve any problem.

Narrow artificial intelligence

Narrow AI surrounds us and could easily be the most successful AI implementation to date. According to preparations for the future of Artificial Intelligence, Narrow AI is focused on specific tasks and has made great strides in the last ten years. They “own” this achievement

What is Artificial Intelligence?

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a super-intelligent program that can learn itself and think like humans. Part of artificial intelligence is machine learning. It is the concept of computer programs that can automatically learn and think like a human.
Important point
Artificial intelligence is used in a variety of industries, including finance and healthcare.
Weak artificial intelligence is usually simple and task-oriented, whereas strong artificial intelligence takes on more complex and human-like tasks.
Understanding Artificial Intelligence (AI)
When most people hear the term AI, firstly what they this is Robot. This is because high-budget films and novels tell the story of a humanoid machine wreaking havoc on the planet. but that’s not the truth.

Artificial intelligence is based on the principle that human intelligence can be defined in such a way that machines can imitate and perform the simplest to the most complex tasks. One of the goals of Artificial Intelligence is to imitate human cognitive activity. Researchers and developers in the field have made surprisingly rapid progress in activities such as mimicking learning, thinking, and perception, which can be defined specifically. Some believe that innovators will soon be able to create systems that are better than human capacity.

With advances in technology, the criteria that previously defined artificial intelligence are becoming obsolete. For example, machines that compute basic functions or recognize text through optical character recognition are no longer considered an embodiment of artificial intelligence, as these functions are now considered computer functions.

Artificial intelligence is evolving, which benefits many different industries. These machines are linked by interdisciplinary methods from mathematics, computer science, linguistics, psychology, and others.

Artificial intelligence app
The uses of artificial intelligence are endless. This technology can be used in various branches and industries. Artificial intelligence is being tested in the healthcare industry and is used to administer drugs and perform various treatments for patients, as well as during surgical procedures in operating rooms.

Other examples of artificial intelligence machines are computers playing chess and driverless cars. Each of these machines must consider the consequences of each action because each action affects the final result. In playing chess, the ultimate goal is winning the game. In the case of autonomous vehicles, IT systems must take into account and calculate all external data to avoid collisions.

Artificial intelligence applications are also used to simplify and streamline transactions. This is achieved by making it easy to evaluate the supply, demand, and price of securities.

Artificial Intelligence Classification
There are two types of categories in Artificial intelligence, which are weak and strong. Weak artificial intelligence is a system that is supposed to perform certain tasks. Weak AI systems include video games.

Security of Blockchain

Is the blockchain secure?

Blockchain technology solves security and trust issues in several ways. New blocks are always stored linearly. They are always added to the “end” of the blockchain. If you look at the Bitcoin blockchain, you will see that each block has a position in the chain called “High”. As of November 2020, the block height has reached 656,197 blocks.

After adding a block to the end of the blockchain, it is difficult to go back and change the contents of the block unless most people reach a consensus. This is because each block contains its own hash value, the hash value of the previous block and the timestamp mentioned above. A hash code is created by a mathematical function that converts digital information into a sequence of numbers and letters. If the information is manipulated in any way, the hash code also changes.

Because it is important for safety. Suppose a hacker wants to modify the blockchain and steal bitcoins from other people. If they choose to change their unique copy, it will no longer match anyone else’s copy. When other people cross your copy with each other, they will find that the copy is noticed and the pirated version of the chain is considered illegal and discarded.

A successful hack of this type requires the hacker to simultaneously control and modify 51% of the blockchain copies so that the new copy becomes the majority copy or agreed chain. Such attacks also require a large amount of resources and resources because they have to process all the blocks because they now have different timestamps and hash codes.

Due to the size and growth rate of the Bitcoin network, the costs of performing this feat are insurmountable. Not only can it be very expensive, it can also be useless. This is not ignored as network members will see such drastic changes in the blockchain. The network member then forks to the new unaffected version of the chain.

This will cause the attacked version of Bitcoin to lose its value, ultimately rendering the attack futile as bad people control useless assets. The same thing would happen if bad guys wanted to attack the new Bitcoin fork. It is designed so that participating in the network is more of a financial challenge than an attack.

Bitcoin and Blockchain

The purpose of the blockchain is to allow the recording and dissemination of digital, but not editable, information. Blockchain technology was first proposed in 1991 by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Storneta. These two researchers want to implement a system that cannot change the labeling of temporary documents. But it wasn’t until 20 years later, with the introduction of Bitcoin in January 2009, that blockchain got its first practical application.

The Bitcoin protocol is based on the blockchain. In a research paper on digital currencies, the creator of the pseudonym Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto, described it as “a new system for equivalent electronic money without a reliable third party”.

The key to understand here is that Bitcoin only uses the blockchain to transparently record the ledger, but in theory blockchain can be used to record any number of data points without exception. As noted above, this could be a transaction, a vote, a product inventory, a government identification, a residency deed, etc.

Today there are many blockchain-based projects that hope to implement blockchain in such a way that, apart from capturing transactions, it will help society. The invariability of the blockchain means fraudulent voting becomes more difficult.

For example, blockchain based decentralization system can be used for a voting system. Each candidate then receives a specific address in the wallet, and voters send their token or cryptocurrency to the address of each candidate they wish to vote for. The transparency and traceability of the blockchain will eliminate the need for manual counting of votes and the ability for poor participants to manipulate physical votes.


Blockchain will not be a panacea for solving social problems. No tool or technology can, but its adoption across societies may offset some of Ito’s concerns about the modest direction of Silicon Valley technology evangelism and its over-reliance on artificial intelligence. First, Silicon Valley’s financial monopoly on all data and assets contained in a Web 2.0 environment can be redistributed to individual Web 3.0 users. Second, the social decentralization promoted by blockchain can redistribute and democratize the way people participate and work together. Third, the blockchain is not controlled by a central authority, but by the entire network of participants. The decision-making mechanism of a large number of people is more flexible.

To understand blockchain, it helps to look at the context of Bitcoin’s application. Like a database, Bitcoin requires a number of computers to store its blockchain. In Bitcoin usage, the blockchain is just a specific type of database that is used to store every Bitcoin transaction. In bitcoin usage, it is not like most database, these computers are not all under one roof. Each computer or group of computers is managed by a unique person or group of individuals.

Imagine a company has a server with 10,000 computers and a database server containing the account information of all its customers. The company has a warehouse that holds all these computers in a room and has complete control over each computer and all the information. Like above example, Bitcoin is made up of thousands of computers, but each computer with its own blockchain is in a different geographic location, and all of them are managed by different people. The computers that make up this Bitcoin network are called nodes.

In this model, the Bitcoin blockchain is used in a decentralized manner. However, there are centralized blockchains where the computers that make up your network are owned and managed by a single entity.

With Bitcoin, data is a complete history of all Bitcoin transactions. If the data error on one node, you can use thousands of other nodes as a benchmark to fix it. In this way, no node on the network can change the information stored on it. Therefore, the transaction history in any block that is the Bitcoin blockchain cannot be changed.

When a user interferes with Bitcoin transaction logs, all other nodes are redirected to each other and easily identify nodes with false information. With Bitcoin, this information is a list of transactions, but blockchain can also store various types of information, such as legal contracts, status displays, or company product inventory.

To make it work, most of the computing power of a decentralized network must agree to these changes. This will ensure that any changes made are in the best interests of the majority of people.


Due to the decentralized nature of the Bitcoin blockchain, all transactions can be viewed transparently, with private nodes or with a blockchain browser, so everyone can view transactions in real time. Each node has its own copy of the circuit which is updated as new blocks are confirmed and added. This means you can track Bitcoin anytime, anywhere if you want.

For example, exchanges have been hacked in the past and those who have bitcoins on the exchange have lost everything. Although hackers can be completely anonymous, the bitcoins they withdraw are easy to track. If the bitcoins stolen in some of these hacking attacks are transferred or spent somewhere, this is known.

Basic Blockchain Knowledge for beginners

What is blockchain?

Blockchain is chain of block that store information to make it impossible to modify or cheat the system.

It also can be called a digital transaction book that is distributed across a network of blockchain computer systems.

A decentralized database that is managed by multiple participants is called Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT).

Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology in which transactions are recorded with a fixed cryptographic signature, called a hash.

This means that when a block in a circuit is replaced, it is damaged immediately. If hackers want to disrupt the blockchain system, they must modify every block in the chain of all distributed versions of the chain.

By adding blocks to the chain, blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum are constantly evolving, which greatly increases the security of the ledger.

Blockchain looks complicated, it sure can be, but the basic concept is actually very simple. Blockchain is a type of database. To understand blockchain, we first need to understand what a database actually is.

Information in the database is usually arranged in the form of tables to facilitate the search and filtering of certain information. What is the difference between people using spreadsheets instead of databases to store information?

Spreadsheets are designed for one person or a small group of people and are used to store and access a limited amount of information. In contrast, databases are designed to store large amounts of information, and any number of users can quickly and easily access, filter, and manipulate this information.

Large databases do this by storing data on servers consisting of powerful computers. These servers can be built with thousands of computers to have the processing power and storage capacity. While a spreadsheet or database can be accessed by any number of people, it is usually owned by a company and maintained by a dedicated person who has complete control over how it works.

So, what is the difference between blockchain and database?

Storage structure

The main difference between a regular database and a blockchain is the way the data is structured. Blockchain collects information in the form of groups (also called blocks) and these groups contain a collection of information. Blocks have a specific storage capacity and are connected to pre-filled blocks when filled, creating a data chain, called a “block chain”.

A database builds its data in tables, and a blockchain builds its data in blocks that are linked together. This is what makes all blockchain databases, but not all databases blockchain. Even with decentralized use, the system inherently creates an immutable chronology of data. When a block is filled, it attaches to the rock and becomes part of that timeline. Each block in the circuit is given an accurate timestamp when added to the circuit.